Wind River Glossary

Wind River Technical Glossary

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When a PPPoE client transmits requests containing the "any" service name, it expects a server to respond with a list of available service names. The client can then send one of these service names in a true connection request.








Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting



A built-in parameter type that has no value associated with it--either it is present or it is not. In the example below, up is a parameter of type absolute that tells what to do to the parameter keyword address.

     set ip address x.x.x.x up


     set = node

    ip = node

    address = param #1 keyword

    x.x.x.x = param #1 value

    up = param #2 (absolute value)

access concentrator


PPP is a peer-to-peer protocol, but also has client/server aspects. An access concentrator is a PPPoE server that responds to requests for particular services.

access routine


A routine provided by VxBus that a driver calls in order to access or manipulate a device register.



Abstract Control Management. A layer of the RNDIS implementation.

active device


An active device is a device that is powered and that is not in the suspend state.

active view


The view that is currently selected, as shown by its highlighted title bar. Many menus change based on which is the active view, and the active view is the focus of keyboard and mouse input.

address field

1. In a public switched network directory number, the address field contains the international telephone directory number.
2. In HDLC-framed packets, the frame begins with an address field indicating the frame's destination.

address pool


A remote access server may assign IP addresses to its clients, and if so, it typically selects these from a predefined address pool.



Make available to VxBus, as with a driver method.

advise sink


An object that absorbs notifications from a source. The advise sink not only handles notifications for data changes, but it also is generally used to detect changes in another compound document object, such as when it is saved, closed, or renamed.



Advanced Encryption Standard



The Authentication Header protocol provides connectionless integrity, data origin authentication, and an optional anti-replay service. Unlike ESP, AH secures parts of the IP header such as the source and destination addresses.



An alarm is an abnormal condition and is thus a special case of a condition.



The Application Level Gateway is a module used together with NAT to support protocols that embed address information in the payload data. An ALG is sometimes also called application proxy.

alpha blending


Alpha blending is a process where multiple graphics planes are combined to produce the displayed image. Often the planes are blended with varying degrees to produce visual effects of translucency.

apartment-threading model


Describes how interface calls are made to an object and defines the rules for passing interface pointers between threads. In the Apartment-threading model, one or more threads in a process can use OLE, and calls to OLE objects are synchronized by OLE. Objects can only be called from the thread that created them.



Application Programming Interface

application layer


In the OSI network layer model, the application layer is the topmost layer--furthest away from the physical connection and closest to the data's origination or destination.



An area is a grouping of plant equipment configured by the user, typically according to areas of operator responsibility. The definition of the area configuration is server specific. Implementation of the area concept is optional. Wind River OPC server is going to implement area browsing. But most of the details of what an area means is left to the customer to decide. If areas are available, the client may create anOPCEventAreaBrowser object to browse the process area organization. The client can filter event subscriptions by specifying the process areas to limit the event notifications sent by the server.



Address Resolution Protocol



A tool that takes assembly language input and converts it into object file formats. In contrast to the C compiler it does not translate the programming language, because there is a one on one mapping from assembler mnemonics to machine operation codes Depending on optimization constraints the assembler may reorder and optimize the original assembler code for maximum utilization of the chosen target.



When a process sends a message and then continues processing without waiting for a reply, or calls a function and continues without waiting for the function to complete its processing, these are said to beasynchronous messages or asynchronous function calls.



To attach the target application and the TCD so that the target application can receive and respond to requests from the host through that TCD, the application in the initialization code uses a target layer routine.



Each of the event objects may have custom attributes, enabling the server to provide additional information to the client with each event notification or whenever the client requests additional condition state data. The client can query the server for the available event attributes per category ID. The client can then select which attributes are sent with the event notification. While Wind River OPC does most of the work, the user must define which types of attributes are used and then include the attribute data in each event that is reported to the Event Manager.

audio device


An audio device is a device that sources or sinks sampled analog data.



The process to establish that an entity is trusted by another entity. Both IEEE 802.1X and IEEE 802.11 define their own authentication processes.

authentication phase


If the peers of a PPP connection negotiate an authentication phase for the connection, the peers will perform authentication with an authentication protocol.

Authentication Server


An 802.1X entity that provides an authentication service to an authenticator.



An 802.1X entity that controls access to a LAN by enforcing port authentication.


back end


Functionality configured into a target server on the host determines how it will communicate with a particular target agent on the target.

For example, in VxWorks, you use a wdbrpc back end for Ethernet connections, wdbpipe for VxWorks simulators, wdbserial for serial connections, and wdbproxy for UDP, TCP, and TIPC connections. (The target server must be configured with a back end that matches the target agent interface with which VxWorks has been configured and built.)



A set of libraries that provide an interface between applications that access resources (consumers) and applications that contain resources (producers). Also referred to as Wind River management backplane, or WMB.



The bandwidth is the amount of data transmitted per unit of time, typically bits per second (b/s) or bytes per second (B/s)



Base address register.

bare metal application



Border Gateway Protocol

big endian


big endian is a method of storing data that places the most significant byte of multiple-byte values at a lower storage address. For example, a 16-bit integer stored in big endian format places the least significant byte at the higher address and the most significant byte at the lower address. See also little endian.

blocked state


If the underlying data link layer cannot accept any more packets or frames to send, the PPP stack enters a blocked state until this condition ends.

board support package (BSP)


Board Support Package (BSP) consists primarily of the hardware-specific code for a particular target board. A BSP includes facilities for hardware initialization, interrupt handling and generation, hardware clock and timer management, mapping of local and bus memory space, and so on.



Bootstrap Protocol

branch node


A branch node (or intermediate node) is a command node that exists hierarchically (on the command tree) between other nodes. A branch node is subordinate to another node (perhaps only the root node) and has nodes subordinate to it.



A network packet or frame is broadcast if it is addressed not to a particular address but to all machines on a subnet or network segment.



The browse path defines the path used to reach the DXConnection when browsing the DX Database. Branches within the browse path represent logical groupings of DXConnections. Clients are allowed to define more than one browse path for each DXConnection, thus enabling DXConnections to belong to more than one logical grouping.



Board Support Package



In several places within this document, there are references to file names that are based on the BSP. These filenames have the string bspname substituted. For example, if you are working on a BSP calledacmeBSP, change any reference bspname to acmeBSP. For example, bspname .h would become acmeBSP.h.



The type of project built: managed build by default (formerly flexible build); and also a deprecated but still available standard managed build  (sometimes known as a standard build). There are also user-defined and disabled builds


build flag


build flag variable is defined in the makefile and used to set various compiler options.

build macro


build macro is a build flag

build spec


A particular set of build settings appropriate for a specific target board.

This provides functionality that is configured into a target server to allow it to communicate with various target agents, based on the mode of communication that you establish between the host and the target (network, serial, and so on).

bulk transfer


Bulk transfer is one of the four USB transfers. These are nonperiodic, large bursty communications typically used for a transfer that can use any available bandwidth but can also be delayed until bandwidth is available.



A hardware mechanism for communication between the processor and a device, or between different devices. This term can also apply to processor-to-processor communication, such as with RapidIO or the processor local bus (PLB) on SMP and AMP systems.

bus controller


The hardware device that controls signals on a bus. The bus controller hardware must be associated with a bus controller device driver in order for VxBus to make use of the device. The service that a bus controller device driver provides is to support the devices downstream from the controller. The bus controller driver is also responsible for enumerating devices present on the bus. See also devicedriver, enumeration, and instance.

bus discovery


See "enumeration".

bus match


A VxBus procedure to create an instance whenever a new device or driver is made available. This procedure is used to determine if a given driver and device should be paired to form an instance.

bus reset


bus reset is a first signal sent by the host to the device once the host has detected a connect to the device on the bus. The control pipes should be created on a bus reset. See also control pipe.

bus type


A kind of bus, such as PCI or RapidIO. See also bus controller.


CA cert


A CA cert is a digital certificates issued by a Certificate Authority.

callback function


callback function is a routine defined by an application that is called back by library code in response to a message.

callback routine


callback routine is registered with the lower layers by the client module. Callback routines are mapped to events, so that when a specific event occurs, the lower layers call the corresponding routine to signal the client module that the event has occurred.



The care-of address is a temporarily acquired IP address that a mobile node obtains when it attaches to a foreign link. Under Mobile IPv4, care-of-address is used for communication between the mobile node and the mobile node's home agent. It is not used for any type of persistent moveable traffic. The address is formed based on router advertisements on the current network. See also mobile node and home agent.



Cipher Block Chaining



Class-Based Queueing



Common Cryptographic Interface



Cursor Device-Dependent Bitmap



Cursor Device-Independent Bitmap

CDT (C/C++ Development Tooling)


The Eclipse C/C++ IDE.



Cryptographically Generated Address



channel is a communication path between the target application and target layer.

channel number


channel number is an audio port on the audio device.



A device that is attached to a bus.



Classless Inter-domain Routing



The client is software resident on the host that interacts with the USB system software to arrange data transfer between a function and the host. The client is often the provider and consumer of the transferred data.

clip children mode


Clip children mode is a method whereby a window's children are excluded from its visible region. This means the window is never allowed to draw in the space occupied by its children.

clip rectangle


The clip rectangle is the rectangular area in the default bitmap to which drawing operations are restricted.

clip region


The clip region is an abstract area in the default bitmap defined by the union of a set of rectangles to which drawing operations are restricted. Clipping regions restrict the area in which drawing operations may take place.



Class ID. Every implementation of an interface (a class) must register a unique CLSID so the system knows what to create. For example, every OPC server will register its own CLSID so that a client can create the specific one it wants. Compare this with an IID. See the definition for IID.



Buffers used by netBufLib to hold packet data. See also mBlk.



Color Lookup Table



Care of Address

color context


The color assigned to a particular process in the Debug view; this color carries over to breakpoints in the Editor and to other views that derive their context from the Debug view.

color cube


color cube is an object that describes a broad spectrum of colors written to a CLUT.

Color Look Up Table (CLUT)


The color look up table is a table, usually in hardware, that translates a color represented by an index to the RGB components for that color.



Component Object Model. A software architecture developed by Microsoft that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into, and used by, a variety of applications.



The entire string of text a device an administrator enters at the CLI prompt to execute some function. A command can consist of multiple command nodes and parameters.

command handler


Command handlers link the commands entered on the command line to WindMark names and WindMark handlers.

command node


A single token of a command. For example, show is a command node in the following command:

  show system uptime

command tree


A command tree is the organized hierarchy of commands that your CLI users can access. A command tree consists of three types of command nodes: root nodes, branch nodes (or intermediate nodes), and leaf nodes.

command-line option


An argument passed to the invocation of a given tool. Arguments starting with "-X" usually affect the tool operation in itself (i.e. how and what it does). Arguments without "-X" usually control the data on which a tool operates and if additional output is required.



Connection-Oriented Message Passing

compile-time macro


compile-time macro is a build flag.



A tool to translate a given programming language (e.g. C or C++) into another language. The result is either an object file format, or an intermediary language suitable to be processed into an object file by other tools (e.g., the assembler)

The term "compiler" is sometimes loosely used as a synonym for the entire tool chain used to create an executable. See tool chain.

compiler switch



An application code segment that communicates with the backplane. Examples include the embedded HTTP server, the embedded telnet daemon, a project that implements a command tree (or a subset of a larger command tree), and a Web portfolio.

A Wind River CLI, Web, MIBway component is distinct from a VxWorks component, which is a program that can be linked and manipulated by VxWorks. A VxWorks component or application can contain several Wind River CLI, Web, MIBway components.



A condition is a named state of the OPC Event Server, or of one of its contained objects, which is of interest to its OPC clients. For example, the tag FIC101 may have the "LevelAlarm" or "DeviationAlarm" conditions associated with it. a condition may be defined (optionally) to include multiple subconditions. For example, a "LevelAlarm" condition may include the "HighAlarm", "HighHighAlarm", "LowAlarm", and "LowLowAlarm" subconditions.

condition event


Condition event is one that is associated with a condition. An event may or may not be associated with a condition. For example, the transitions into the "LevelAlarm" condition and the return to normal are events, which are associated with conditions. However, operator actions, system configuration changes, and system errors are examples of events, which are not related to specific conditions. (NOTE: In the case of Wind River's Wind River OPC A&E server, alarms are simple events.)

configuration editor


The configuration editor is a graphical configuration tool to generate required source files that define a Media Library configuration.

configuration request


PPP peers negotiate the characteristics of their connection by exchanging configuration requests.

console tools


The console tool set provides the code generation features of the WMIT for command-line use on Windows and Solaris hosts. The console tools consist of rombuildwmbbdwmcbdwmmbd, and wmwbd.

control endpoint


control endpoint is an IN/OUT device endpoint pair used by a control pipe. Control endpoints have the same endpoint number and transfer data in both directions; therefore, they use both endpoint directions of a device address and endpoint number combination. Thus, each control endpoint consumes two endpoint addresses.

control pipe


control pipe is a bidirectional pipe that transfers data to the control endpoint. The data has an imposed structure that allows requests to be reliably identified and communicated.

control plane


The control plane refers to the code that calls into the stack to configure the multicast forwarding table.

control transfer


control transfer is one of the four USB transfers. It supports configuration/command/status type communication between the client and function.

Controlled Port


A secured access point to the system.

correspondent node


correspondent node is some unknown entity on the internet with which the mobile node is communicating. See also mobile node.



A single processing entity capable of executing program instructions and processing data (also referred to as a core, as in multicore). May refer to a single simultaneous multi-threading (SMT) processing unit on superscalar processors, as well as a core.

A CPU can be identified by its CPU ID, physical CPU index, and logical CPU index. A CPU ID is defined by the systems firmware or hardware. The physical CPU indices begin with zero for the system's bootstrap CPU and are incremented by one for each additional CPU in the system. The logical CPU indices are specific to the operating system instance. For example, a UP instance always has a logical CPU index of zero; an SMP instance configured for four CPUs assigns logical indexes to those CPUs from 0-3, regardless of the number or how many CPUs are in the physical system.



The process of writing code on one system, known as the host, that will run on another system, known as the target.



Carrier Sense Multiple Access



Counter encryption mode



cursor is a special bitmap image created by an application, which is positioned on the screen by a pointing device.




daemon is a term that originates from Unix and refers to a task that is running in the background. The Wind River multicasting daemon is the task that implements the multicast routing duties as required by a multicast proxy specification.

Data item


Smallest piece of data a DA server can send to a DA client. The OPC Foundation's Data Access Specification defines transfer of DA items between servers.

data link layer


The data link layer is layer two of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment. The data link layer prepares the packets for transmission, and detects and handles errors, such as packet collision. Examples of data link protocols are Ethernet for local area networks and PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) for point-to-point connections.

data plane


The data plane is the code that makes up the forwarding step, for example, in the context of multicasting.

data section


A section that usually contains only variables. See section.



datagram is a self-contained packet used in packet switching. A datagram contains enough information in the header to allow the network to forward it to the destination independently of previous or future datagrams. Thus, no setup is needed before a computer tries to send datagrams to a computer with which it has not previously communicated, unlike with virtual circuit protocols.



Driver Certification Kit



Distributed COM. DCOM connects COM clients and servers across a network, and instantiates and binds objects across the network. Currently available only on Windows 2000 and NT 4.0. You must install DCOM separately for Windows 95.



Device Dependent Bitmap



Driver Development Kit

debuggable objects


Debuggable objects are the executable application files, kernels, kernel modules, and libraries that can be accessed by both the host and target. These objects are ideally compiled without optimization, but with the appropriate debug flags (for example with -g, or -g-dwarf-2). They can not be stripped of symbols.

default address


default address is an address defined by the USB specification and used by a USB device when it is first powered or reset. The default address is 00H.

default control pipe


default control pipe provides a message pipe through which a USB device can be configured once it is attached and powered. It is used for control transfers. All other pipes come into existence when the device is configured.

default policy


The policy applied to packets for which there is no matching policy in the Security Policy Database (SPD), usually a bypass or discard policy.



Data Encryption Standard



descriptor is a data structure with a defined format. A USB device reports its attributes to the host using descriptors. Each descriptor begins with a byte-wide field that contains the total number of bytes in the descriptor, followed by a byte-wide field that identifies the descriptor type.



To detach is to remove the attach of the target application with the target controller driver.



Where this document refers to devices that the BSP might support, these devices are generically referred to as dev . In such cases, substitute the name of each device or device type for dev . For example, if your BSP supports both ATA and SCSI devices, change sysDev .c to the pair of files sysAta.c and sysScsi.c.



device is a logical or physical entity that performs a function. The actual entity described depends on the context of the reference. At the lowest level, a device may refer to a single hardware component, as in a memory device. At a higher level, it may refer to a collection of hardware components that perform a particular function, such as a USB interface device. At an even higher level, device may refer to the function performed by an entity attached to the USB, such as a data/fax modem device. The term "device" is sometimes interchanged with "peripheral".

device address


device address is a value between zero and 127, inclusive, that the target application uses to identify the device in the bus.

device qualifier


device qualifier descriptor describes information about a device capable of high speed that would change if the device were operating at the other speed.



Dynamic Home Agent Assignment



Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol



Device Independent Bitmap

direct color


direct color is a display color management mode in which all color data is contained in the frame buffer.



To disable the USB peripheral stack is to make it invisible to the USB host. Once disabled, the USB peripheral stack does not respond to any request from the host.

disabled build


Project builds for which Workbench provides no build support at all. Useful for projects or folders that contain, for example, only header or documentation files that do not need to be built.



To disconnect is to unplug the USB device connection from the host.

discovery packet


In PPP over Ethernet, clients find available servers by broadcasting a discovery packet that contains a session request and a service name. A server that supports that service name responds by transmitting a session offer to the client.



Dithering is a technique used to achieve maximum image quality.



VxWorks Downloadable Kernel Module.



Direct Memory Access



Domain Name System

double buffer


double buffer is a technique used to reduce flicker for graphics pages, which allows your application to write to a page while another page is displayed.

double precision



Downstream indicates the direction of data flow from the host. A downstream port is the port on a hub electrically farthest from the host that generates downstream data traffic from the hub. Downstream ports receive upstream data traffic.



When referring to hardware, a driver is an I/O pad that drives an external load. When referring to software, a driver is a program responsible for interfacing with a hardware device, that is, a device driver.

driver method


A driver method is a published entry point into a driver made available to an API in VxBus. Examples of methods include functionality such as connecting network interfaces to the MUX and discovery of interrupt routing. See also method ID.



Digital Signal Processor



The browsable space of a DX server. It contains DXConnections, Source Servers, and a user customizable target data item hierarchy. Part of the DX server's OPC DA address space. The DX server periodically persists changes to the DX Database for use when restarting. DA clients are able to browse the DX Database in the DX server using the IOPCBrowseServerAddressSpace interface.



DXConnection is part of the DX server browsable space, which defines a data transfer from a source data item on a particular Source Server to a target data item in the DX server. OPC DX clients use OPC DX specific services to define in terms of attributes that identify the source and target items, characterize the data transfer between them, and provide additional descriptive information about the DXConnection.

dynamic library




Extensible Authentication Protocol



Explicit Congestion Notification



The Editor is a visual component within Wind River Workbench. It is typically used to edit or browse a file or other resource. Each Workbench perspective displays the Editor area even when no files are open. Modifications made in the Editor follow an open-save-close life cycle model. Multiple instances of an Editor type may exist within a Workbench window.



Exterior Gateway Protocol

egress filtering


Egress filtering is a method of securing a network by monitoring and filtering packets that leave an internal network to external networks (internet) via a router. Egress filtering makes a system less prone to attack from hackers by ensuring that spoofed packets never leave an internal network. See also ingress filtering.

EGRESS interface


The EGRESS interface is the mobile router's interface that moves, meaning, that may change its attachment point to the internet, in contrast with the INGRESS interface. The mobile node uses the EGRESS interface to properly register to the home agent. See also INGRESS interface.



An element is an entity that holds source analysis information of any kind, standing for a declaration or occurrence of a constant, preprocessor option, variable, function, method, type, or namespace in a parsed source code file.



To enable a USB device is to bring it up in such a way that it becomes visible to and able to respond to a USB host.



The process of wrapping data in a protocol header. Specifically, the header and payload of one type of packet become the payload of another type of packet. For example, network traffic is wrapped in an Ethernet header before being transmitted over the network. When bridging dissimilar networks, the entire frame from one network is placed in the header used by the link layer protocol of the other network. See also tunnel mode.



Enhanced Network Driver

END driver


An END driver is a frame-oriented driver that exchange frames with the MUX. See also MUX.



An endpoint is one of a number of enumerable sources or destinations for data on a USB-capable peripheral or host.

endpoint descriptor


An endpoint descriptor is a data structure that describes an endpoint (see Endpoint Descriptor).

endpoint number


An endpoint number is a four-bit value between 0H and FH, inclusive, associated with an endpoint on a USB device.

endpoint request packet


An endpoint request packet (ERP) is a structure that is defined in installDir /target/h/usb/usb.h. It consists of data that the peripheral wishes to communicate to the host.

Enhanced Host Controller Interface


The Enhanced Host Controller Interface (EHCI) is the host controller compliant with the USB 2.0 specification.



To enumerate a device is to get it detected and configured as a USB device on the host. Once the device is detected, the host sends a bus reset, followed by a sequence of standard requests that the device should respond to, in order to get it enumerated (configured).



Enumeration refers to the discovery of devices present on a bus. For some bus types such as PCI, the bus contains information about devices that are present. For those bus types, dynamic discovery is performed during the enumeration phase. For bus types such as VME, which do not have such functionality, tables that describe the devices that may be present on the system are maintained in the BSP.



Extended Sequence Number. ESN provides anti-replay support for high-speed IPsec implementations.



Encapsulating Security Payload may provide confidentiality (encryption), and limited traffic flow confidentiality. It also may provide connectionless integrity, data origin authentication, and an anti-replay service.



An event is a detectable occurrence, which is of significance to the OPC Event Server, the device it represents, and its OPC clients. OPC clients may subscribe to be notified of the occurrence of specified events. There are three kinds of events simple, tracking, and condition.

event categories


Event categories define groupings of events supported by an OPC Event Server. Examples of event categories might include "Process Events", "System Events", or "Batch Events". Event categories may be defined for all event types; for example, simple, tracking, and condition-related. However, a particular event category can include events of only one type. A given Source (e.g. "System" or "FIC101") may generate events for multiple event categories. Names of event categories must be unique within the event server. The definition of event categories is server-specific. Some servers may have dynamic categories.

executable file


A file in a well-defined binary format that can be loaded into the memory of a system and run. Depending on the type of executable, it is either loaded by an operating system running on the system, or it is loaded into the memory of the system using ROM- and/or RAM-programming tools. Sometimes simply referred to as an "executable."

execution environment


The various external factors under which a compilation occurs and which may affect the compilation output. These factors include default libraries, startup code, default linker scripts, environmental variables, and so on.



A symbol not defined in the current compilation module. Hence it is "external" from the point of view of the current module.


fast frame check (FCS)


A checksum used to detect data corruption during transmission.

fast path


fast path is a fast IP-forwarding mechanism that intercepts packets before they are passed up to IP. If the packet is destined for a location known to the fast path route cache (also known as the FIB, the Forwarding Information Base), the application forwards the packet. If the destination is unknown to the FIB, the application leaves the packet to IP.

favored peer option


The favored peer option determines which peer is favored in the event of a race condition in which both peers simultaneously transmit the same variety of BAP request.



feature is the element to be set or cleared for a GET_FEATURE or CLEAR_FEATURE request from host. See Feature Parameter.



Front End Processor



Forwarding Information Base



The criteria on which events may be selected. These include, type of event, categories, source, area, and severity.



firewall is a piece of hardware or software used in a networked environment to prevent communications that are forbidden by the security policy. A common type of firewall is a router retrofitted with extra software for packet filtering based on a list of rules or criteria.

first in, first out


first in, first out (FIFO) protocol is an approach to handling program work requests from a queue or stack. The request that enters the queue first is addressed first.

flexible managed build


Deprecated name for what is currently called managed build.

floating-point mode


A method of representing numbers that cannot be represented as integers, either because they are too large or too small (e.g., 1.234x1025) or because they are irrational (e.g., 2/3). Some processors offer hardware support for single precision floating-point operations, others for both single- and double precision, and others don't offer any hardware support at all. When compiling, you must indicate to the compiler how to handle floating-point operations (e.g., through software or hardware or not at all).



A flow is a 5-tuple set of packet selectors consisting of a source IP address, a destination IP address, a source port, a destination port, and an IP protocol identifier. In Wind River IKE, flows act as unique identifiers for sets of IPsec SA negotiation parameters (in the IKE configuration file) and for individual SAs (in the SADB).

foreign agent


foreign agent is a router on the mobile node's foreign link that supports Mobile IP for IPv4. If the mobile node obtains its care-of address from a foreign agent, the care-of address is the address of the foreign agent. See also mobile nodeforeign link, and care-of-address.

foreign link


foreign link is the link to which a mobile node attaches when it leaves its home link to attach to a different link. Under Mobile IP for IPv4, when a mobile node attaches to a foreign link, it obtains a care-of address on the foreign link. See also mobile node and care-of-address.



frame is a one-millisecond time base, established on full- and low-speed buses.

frame buffer


frame buffer is a block of memory that stores the image of the data displayed on the display device, such as a monitor or flat panel LCD.

frame number


frame number is an identifier for the active frame.

free-threading model


A free-threading model, also called multi-threaded apartment threading model (MTA), consists of one apartment shared by all threads that have called CoInitializeEx( ). In an MTA, any thread may create objects in the apartment and no thread controls access. As a result, it is possible to have several threads simultaneously access an object and change class data; hence there is a need for synchronization objects to protect class data.

Freescale Dual-Role USB Controllers


Freescale has integrated a Dual-Role USB controller IP into several of its SOC systems, with different chip specific configurations that enable various features of the IP. For more information, see 7.3 Configuring Freescale Dual-Role USB Controllers, p. 236.

Front End Processor (FEP)


front end processor is an application that processes data prior to passing on to the primary processor. In Media Library, an FEP is typically used for composing input for international character sets.



File Transfer Protocol



Full-speed refers to USB operation at 12 Mb/s. See also low-speed and high-speed.

function code


function code describes the services requested from the TCD

function driver


function driver implements the functionality of a device, such as a mass storage device.


generic endpoints


The generic endpoints are all the endpoints used to support bulk, isochronous, and interrupt transfers. Generic endpoints do not include control endpoints (see control endpoint).

gif interface


gif interface is a generic tunneling pseudo device for IPv4 and IPv6. It can tunnel IPv[46] traffic over IPv[46]. Therefore, there can be four possible configurations. The behavior of gif is mainly based on RFC2893 IPv6-over-IPv4 configured tunnel. See also stf interface.

global command node


Global commands are accessible whether or not you are in an intermediate mode.

graphics context


graphics context is a data structure containing information relevant to a current drawing operation such as line width, fill pattern, and clip regions. A graphic context is created by an application to perform graphics rendering.



group (in the context of multicasting) is a specific IP address for which there can be zero or more listeners. An IP datagram sent to a group should be delivered to all nodes listening to that group.



Generalized Timing Format



Graphical User Interface



The left vertical border of the editor view where breakpoints and the program counter appear.




See "stall".



handle is a unique identifier used for communication with the object to which it is assigned. For example, the target controller driver (TCD) provides the target application with a handle during the attachment process. The target application uses this handle to communicate with the attached TCD.

There is also a handle for every pipe created by the target application. The target application uses this handle to communicate with the pipe.



The function that executes when a request is made of a particular resource. Some handlers, such as command handlers and WindMark handlers, are implemented by you. Other handlers, such as the MIBway handler, HTML form SELECTED and CHECKED handlers, and built-in global CLI command handlers, are provided as part of Wind River CLI, Web, MIBway.

hardware adaptation layer


The hardware adaptation layer (HAL) provides a hardware-independent view of the target controller to higher layers in the stack.

hardware cursor


hardware cursor is an implementation of cursor technology that puts a graphic cursor on a different drawing plane from other primitive drawing operations.

hardware offloading


Hardware offloading is the general concept of deferring tasks, that would normally be carried out in software by the "main" CPU to special hardware or dedicated CPU cores.



A portion of RAM that contains neither executable code nor predefined variables. It can be used for dynamic memory allocations and is available for any process to use.

help key


The help key (or combination of keys) is determined by your host platform: press F1 on Windows, or Ctrl+F1 on Linux and Solaris.

Press the help key in Workbench to get context-sensitive help.



Hierarchical Fair Service Curve



High-speed refers to USB operation at 480 Mb/s. See also low-speed and full-speed.



Keyed hashing for message authentication code



Home Address

home address


home address is a mobile node's IP address that is assigned for an extended period and that remains unchanged regardless of where the node is attached to the Internet." See also mobile node.

home agent


The home agent is a router on the mobile node's home link that supports mobile IP and knows where the mobile node is. See also mobile node.



The host computer system is where the USB host controller is installed. This includes the host hardware platform (such as the CPU, bus, and so on) and the operating system.

host controller


The host controller is the host's USB interface

host controller driver


The host controller driver is the USB software layer that abstracts the host controller hardware. The HCD provides a service provider interface (SPI) for interaction with the host controller. The host controller driver hides the specifics of the host controller hardware implementation from the higher layers of the stack.

Host Shell


A Wind River command shell that provides a command-line environment for GDB and KGDB debugging. The Host Shell also provides Tcl scripting support.

host stack


The USB host stack is software that enables a function driver to communicate with the USB device.



hot spot is a defined area that allows an application to offset the cursor image on the display or allows it to be centered on a particular feature in a bitmap image.



Hyper Text Mark-up Language



Hypertext Transfer Protocol



hub is a USB device that provides additional connections to the USB.



In Linux, a hunk is a contiguous group of source lines generated when the diff program is applied to compare files. The patch program and the Quilt patch program based upon it use diff to create patches, which are then internally represented as one or more hunks to apply to a file to patch it.



Calls made from the guest OS to the hypervisor through the virtual board interface that allows access to certain privileged operations on the physical hardware.


I/O request packet


An I/O request packet (IRP) is an identifiable request by a software client to move data in an appropriate direction between itself (on the host) and an endpoint of a device.



Internet Assigned Number Authority



Internet Control Message Protocol

IEEE 802.1X


IEEE standard for port-based network access control. Secures wired or wireless networks against unauthorized supplicants by requiring supplicants to be authenticated by a central server before gaining access to the network.

The IEEE 802.11 standard encompasses the physical layer (PHY) and the lower portion of the data link layer which is often referred to as the MAC sublayer.



The Internet Engineering Task Force is an international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers who work in groups on Internet standards. IEFTF is described fully a their website:



Internet Group Management Protocol



Interior Gateway Protocol



Interface ID. Every interface has a unique IID, although many implementations may exist, each with its own CLSID. For example, the OPC interface IOPCEventServer has an IID defined by the OPC .idl file. An IID is the same for all servers, so when a client connects to a specific server (using a CLSID), it still queries for a well-known IID.



Internet Key Exchange is a protocol for exchanging keying material between two peers over an insecure network link. IKE is based on ISAKMP, Oakley and SKEME. There are two versions of IKE: version 1 (IKEv1), and version 2 (IKEv2).

image test configuration file


An intermediate file used to pass the test configuration information found in the test modules to the test suite build script.

IN endpoint


The IN endpoint is the endpoint that corresponds to IN requests from the host.

incremental linking


The process, executed by the linker, of combining object files and libraries into a partially linked object file that can be linked again to allow it to be eventually turned into an executable. Incremental linking allows the resulting object to still have unresolved references.

Instead of linking all object files at once (the usual case), one can create an executable by linking one object files at a time, i.e. incrementally.

indexed color


An indexed color is a display color management mode, in which each pixel in the frame buffer is represented by an index value.



Specifies the incoming data side of a network peer.

ingress filtering


Ingress filtering is the application of a firewall rulebase to inbound traffic. Ingress filtering allows you to control the traffic that enters your network and restrict activity to legitimate purposes. See also INGRESS interface and firewall.

INGRESS interface


The INGRESS interface is the mobile router's static interface, meaning that it does not change, in contrast with the EGRESS interface. The INGRESS interface provides the hosts located, on the same network as INGRESS, a stable default router, regardless of where the mobile router's EGRESS is currently connected/located.

See also mobile network and EGRESS interface.

initialization code


initialization code is a VxWorks configuration routine that initializes the USB components. All initialization code routines are located in the directory installDir /target/config/comps/src.

input callback


An input callback is a function called by the input service in response to an input message. Input callbacks can be used for moving a cursor, routing messages to application message queues or performing FEP for special language characters.

input section


See section.


Within this document, file paths are typically expressed as a full path; this practice maintains consistency between this and other Wind River documentation.



A driver and device that are associated with each other. This is the minimal unit that is accessible to higher levels of the operating system. See also busdevice, and driver.

intermediate mode


Intermediate mode temporarily promotes a node so that the system behaves as if the intermediate node is the root node. For example, if the command node set has an intermediate mode, you can enter that intermediate mode and execute any command as if to the root node You can specify an intermediate mode for any branch node. When you enter the intermediate mode, you can execute commands subordinate to the intermediate node without having to retype the intermediate node each time. Consider the commands:

  set some system variable01 valueParameter
set some system variable02 valueParameter
set some system variable03 valueParameter
set some system variable04 valueParameter

If you specify set some system as an intermediate mode, you could then execute each command by only typing variable01  valueParameter , and so forth.

interrupt endpoint


An interrupt endpoint is the endpoint associated with interrupt-type transfers.

interrupt request


An interrupt request (IRQ) is a hardware signal that allows a device to request attention from a host. The host typically invokes an Interrupt service routine to handle the condition that caused the request.

interrupt request line


An interrupt request line is a hardware line over which devices can send interrupt signals to the microprocessor.

Interrupt service routine


An interrupt service routine is a software routine that is executed in response to an interrupt.

interrupt transfer


An interrupt transfer is one of the four USB transfer types. It is characterized by small data, non-periodic, low frequency, and bounded latency. It is typically used to handle service needs.



Internet Protocol

IP address


An IP address refers to the address of a node.



Inter-Process Communication



Interpeak Common library containing utilities common to all Interpeak products.



IP-in-IP tunneling, used to encapsulate an IP packet in an outer IP header with protocol number 4. The inner packet is unpacked and parsed by the target specified by the outer destination IP address.



Internet Protocol security



IPv6 stands for Internet Protocol version 6, the latest level of the Internet Protocol. The most obvious improvement in IPv6 over the IPv4 is that IP addresses are lengthened from 32 bits to 128 bits. This extension anticipates future growth of the Internet and provides relief for what was perceived as an impending shortage of network addresses.



Interrupt Request



Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol

isochronous transfer


An isochronous transfer is one of the four USB transfer types. Isochronous transfers are used when working with isochronous data. Isochronous transfers provide periodic continuous communication between host and device.



Independent Software Vendor

ITC file



An item is anything that can be represented by a VARIANT. It is typically a single value such as an analog, digital, or string value.



initialization vector or initializing value




Java Development Toolkit provided by the Eclipse organization ( ).



jumbogram is a transmission packet that contains a payload larger than 65,535 eight-bit bytes (also known as octets). IPv6 is able to carry a jumbogram.


kernel configuration editor


The editor that allows you to configure the kernel of a VxWorks Image project.

kernel mode


For Linux 2.6 and higher kernels, two connection modes are supported: kernel and user mode connections. Kernel mode connections allow kgdb debugging of the kernel in a manner analogous to debugging applications in user mode.

kernel module


A piece of code, such as a device driver, that can be loaded and unloaded without the need to rebuild and reboot the kernel.

key map


key map is the fashion whereby individual keys are to be interpreted, such as a key map for English (US), German, and French.




Local Area Network

launch configuration


A run-mode launch configuration is a set of instructions that instructs Workbench to connect to your target and launch a process or application. A debug-mode launch configuration completes these actions and then attaches the debugger.



Liquid Crystal Display

leaf node


A command node that has no other nodes subordinate to it. When entering commands, only parameters, not other commands, can follow a leaf node.



Light Emitting Diode




The configurable length of time after which IKE automatically deletes a protection suite, so that its repeated use does not pose a security risk.



A tool to combine object files into executables or partially linked object files.

linker command file


A file used by the linker that contains ordering constraints on how to combine the sections of the input object files into the single output object file. It also contains information on how to perform location.



A process executed by the linker. During linking, the linker combines input object files into a single output object file. During the process, the linker resolves unresolved references and combines the sections of the input object files into sections of the single output object.

little endian


Little endian is a method of storing data that places the least significant byte of multiple-byte values at lower storage addresses. For example, a 16-bit integer stored in little endian format places the least significant byte at the lower address and the most significant byte at the next address. See also big endian.



The Local Mobility Anchor is part of the proxy mobile domain, in which it acts as (has the functional capabilities of) the home agent for the mobile node and supports the proxy mobility IPv6 protocol as defined in the specification. The LMA maintains and manages host routes and forwarding information for local mobile nodes. As the mobile node moves within the local mobility domain, the LMA is an anchor point for routing of mobile node data traffic and it manages the mobile node's binding state. See also MAG.



A process executed by the linker. During location the linker assigns physical addresses to the various symbols contained in a (partially linked) object file. Location must always be preceded by linking.



Low-speed is USB operation at 1.5 Mb/s. See also full-speed and high-speed.




message authentication code

MAC Interface


The MAC interface is the Ethernet interface used by the SNMP agent in the network device for communications to and from another device.



The Mobile Access Gateway is one of two network entities involved in the proxy mobile IP process, the other being the local mobility anchor (LMA). The MAG is a function on an access router that manages the mobility-related signaling for a mobile node that is attached to its access link. It tracks the mobile node's movements to and from the access link, and updates the mobile node's LMA as to the current location of the host. See also LMA.

magic number


LCP sends a randomly-selected magic number in its negotiation packets so that a stack can distinguish its own echoed packets from those coming from a peer; see RFC 1661.

managed build


A build for which Workbench controls all phases, available for all project types except user-defined projects.



Structure used to organize data buffers. See also cluster.

message handler


message handler is a function provided by a window class that handles messages for all windows belonging to the class. Message handlers are normally created by widget designers and not by applications.

message pipe


message pipe is a bidirectional pipe that transfers data using a request/data/status paradigm. The data has an imposed structure that allows requests to be reliably identified and communicated.

method ID


method ID is the identification of a specific driver method that may be provided by a driver. This must be unique for each method (that is, specific functionality module) on the system. See also driver method.



Management information base. A set of variables provided by the managed device (a server or an agent). The word MIB can indicate the set of all variables provided by a particular device, or a set of variables grouped together in a specification (for example, the Ethernet MIB).

MIB Object


A type of resource that manages SNMP data objects. It differs from WindMark resource objects in that it conforms to SNMP instancing and is tied to an SNMP object identifier (OID). MIB objects cannot yet directly represent WindMark objects.



microframe is a 125-microsecond time base established on high-speed buses.



Media Independent Interface



Media Library



Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is one of the protocols needed to support multicasting in the IPv6 domain.



Memory Management Unit



A human-readable form of an operation code. For example, the human-readable mnemonic for the PowerPC operation code `0x6084beef' is `ori r4,r4,0xdeabeef@l'.



Mobility and Multihoming Protocol

mobile network


The mobile network is the network that is connected to the INGRESS interface, on which the mobile router advertises its registered prefixes. Any devices on the mobile network will use the mobile router as default gateway and move with it when the mobile router changes attachment point to the internet. See also INGRESS interface and mobile router.

mobile node


mobile node is a node that is configured for mobility and able to move from one network link to another without losing its connection to another node and without changing its accessibility to other nodes in the network.

mobile router


The mobile router is the mobile node for IPv6 that has NEMOv6 enabled. See also mobile network and NEMO.



Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an IETF standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage. The strength of MPLS is that the route analysis of an IP packet need only be done once, at the ingress side of the MPLS path, by an edge router.



The Maximum-Receive-Unit (MRU) is the largest physical packet size measured in bytes, that a network can receive.



The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the largest physical packet size measured in bytes that can be transmitted to the network.

multicast proxy


multicast proxy is a way of implementing a multicast router node. The proxy has some restrictions on the network topology in which it is operating. These restrictions are described in the RFC on which the implementation is based.



A set of physical links bundled together to create a single interface that represents a single logical connection.



A single hardware system with two or more processors.



The MUX is an interface layer through which the network services communicate with the data link layer. MUX decouples the network driver and network protocol layers, thereby allowing you to add new network drivers without having to alter the network protocol, or to add a new network protocol without having to alter the MUX_based network interface drivers. Currently, the MUX supports two network driver interface styles, the END interface. See also END driver.




The Network Access Identifier (NAI), which provides the user identity of the connecting node to other mobility resources that the mobile node contacts.



Network Address Port Translation



Network Address Translation



Network Address Translation – Protocol Translation

native mode development environment


Linux: A development environment requiring a usermode agent program to be running on the target, in a Linux operating system. In this environment, the debugger and application are compiled with the same toolchain, thus no emulator is required when running in self-hosted mode.

A native mode development environment can only be used for application development.

native VxWorks


Traditional VxWorks configuration where the operating system runs standalone directly on the target hardware.



Network Driver Interface Specification.



Neighbor Discovery Protocol



NEMO stands for Network Mobility, which aims at providing mobility for entire network prefixes, not only a specific home address. This enables the mobile node for IPv6 to register network prefixes, and to provide forwarding functionality and roaming for network entities using said prefixes.



Netlink is a network service that enables bidirectional communication between the kernel and user-space processes. Netlink is a network service that enables communication between the kernel and user-space processes.

network layer


The layer above the data link layer; IP is an example of an OSI network layer protocol.

network phase


In the state machine that governs a PPP connection, at the end of the link establishment phase, a connection enters the network phase.



Network File System



node is a device that has a network connection.

non-blocking routine


A routine that returns control immediately to the caller, before it has finished doing the tasks for which it was called, is called a non-blocking routine.

normal command node


Unlike global command nodes, a normal command node is only accessible by entering the entire command string, or a partial string when in intermediate mode.



National Transmission Standards Committee




Oakley is a free-form protocol that allows each party to advance the state of the protocol at its own speed. From Oakley, IKE borrowed the idea of different modes, each producing a similar result ñ an authenticated key exchange ñ through the exchange of information at different speeds.



A structured instance of a resource whose attributes can be GET or SET.

object file


A binary file that can be linked into an executable, but is not executable on its own. Typically, several object files may be created from different source code files and then linked together to form an executable.

object module


See object file.

object path mappings


The object path mappings specify where the debuggable objects are to be found for both the debugger running on the host and the target. In Workbench, this is set within the Remote Systems view's Target Connection Properties.



An octet is an eight-bit grouping; usually octet is synonymous with byte except in the rare contexts in which a byte is not an eight-bit quantity.



Original Equipment Manufacturer



Object ID



Object Identifiers



Object Linking and Embedding. Built on the COM foundation, OLE adds higher level conventions for calling from interpreted languages, and so on.

OLE Automation


An industry standard used by applications to expose objects to development tools and other applications. Allows you to control objects from OLE servers using Visual Basic controls and code.



OLE for Process Control. OPC provides for a standard interface that enables the interoperability between automation/control applications, field systems/devices, and business/office applications.

OPC group


The OPC group object maintains information about itself and provides the mechanism for containing and logically organizing OPC items.

Open Host Controller Interface


The Open Host Controller Interface (OHCI) is the host controller compliant with the USB 1.1 specification.

operational status


The operational status of the IP protocol indicates whether its state machine has or has not reached the "opened" state.



The technique of modifying the compilation process so as to create executable code that maximally achieves certain desired qualities. Common code optimizations are for performance (speed), runtime memory consumption, and (static) code size. It is usually difficult to optimize for two or more factors, e.g., for both runtime performance and static code size, and the developer must accept trade-offs--generally by using different compiler command-line options--between different types of optimization.



Operating System



Open Systems Interconnection

OSI network model


The OSI network model is a description of seven layers through which data passes when transmitted from an application on one machine to a peer on a remote network-connected machine. In practice, only four layers are usually implemented: the application layer, the transport layer, the network layer, and the data link layer.



Open Shortest Path First

OUT endpoint


The OUT endpoint is the endpoint that corresponds to OUT requests from the host.

output section


See section.



An overlay is support for multiple planes to create a surface that determines how images are mixed on the display for applications.

overlay mode


An overlay mode is a bit mask specifying the operating parameters for the overlay surface.

overview ruler


The vertical borders on each side of the Editor view. Breakpoints, bookmarks, and other indicators appear in the overview ruler.




packet is a collection of bits, comprising data and control information--including a header, which contains the packet's source and destination IP addresses--formatted for transmission, by protocols, from one node to another.

packet filtering


Packet filtering is the selective passing or blocking of data packets as they pass through a network interface, specifically between the network and transport layers. The most commonly-used criteria when inspecting packets are source and destination address, source and destination port, and protocol. Filter rules specify the criteria that a packet must match and the resulting action taken.

painters clipping mode


The painters clipping mode is a window's visible region that includes the space occupied by its children. This mode assumes dirty windows are redrawn bottom to top, just as a painter would apply paint.



Phase Alternating Line



Information about some aspect of device software configuration. See also resource.



The bus to which a device is attached, or the bus controller of that bus.

partially linked object file


A special kind of object file that is the result of performing incremental linking, created by the linker by linking a set of object files. The partially linked object file can still have unresolved references and is not fully located. (See location.)



Peripheral Component Interconnect (personal computer bus)



Pulse-Code Modulation



Portable Document Format



See "device".



A perspective is a group of views and Editors. One or more perspectives can exist in a single Workbench window, each perspective containing one or more views and Editors. Within a window, each perspective may have a different set of views but all perspectives share the same set of Editors.

Default Workbench perspectives include the Advanced Device Development and Device Debug perspectives, but if you click Window > Open Perspective > Other, additional perspectives (such as those installed with Data Analysis Tools) are available to you.



Perfect forward secrecy refers to the idea that compromise of a single key will permit access to only data protected by a single key. If the encryption key for phase 1 is compromised and PFS is not used, then it is possible to derive all keys that where exchanged in phase 2 (providing that the attacker has all the packets from the exchange). Using PFS will slow down phase 2 exchanges since it requires one Diffie-Hellman operation per phase 2 exchange.



PF_KEY v2 is a generic key management API definition. Its purpose is to provide an OS-independent interface between key management applications, such as Wind River IKE, and OS-specific key engines, such as the security association database (SADB) of Wind River IPsec.

Phase 1


Phase 1 of IKE negotiation is also referred to as "establishing an IKE SA". In Phase 1, two ISAKMP peers negotiate an IKE SA, establishing a secure and authenticated channel with which to communicate. IKEv1 uses Main Mode and Aggressive Mode. In IKEv2 The SA Init method establishes the secure channel. Main Mode and SA Init send the authentication information in a set sequence, providing identity protection. Aggressive Mode does not provide identity protection because all the authentication information is sent at the same time. Aggressive Mode should only be used when network bandwidth is a concern.

Phase 2


Phase 2 of IKE negotiation is also referred to as "establishing an IPsec SA". In Phase 2, the peers negotiate SAs on behalf of IPsec, establishing tunnels or endpoint SAs between IPsec hosts. In IKEv1, Phase 2 uses Quick Mode ; in IKEv2 a Child SA is created because there is no need to repeat the authentication in by Phase 1.



Protocol Independent Multicast



pipe is a logical abstraction representing the association between an endpoint on a device and the software on the host. A pipe has several attributes. For example, a pipe may transfer data as streams (stream pipe) or as messages (message pipe).

pipe handle


pipe handle is used by the target application when it carries out USB transfer on an endpoint.

In order to abstract the pipe information which is maintained internally by the USB peripheral stack from the target application, only a handle (which is a number which identifies the pipe) is given to the target application. This is just an identifier for the pipe, and does not represent the endpoint number.

pixel format


The pixel format specifies the color model and layout of pixel components.



An independent module, available from Wind River, the Eclipse Foundation, or from many Internet Web sites, that delivers new functionality to Workbench without the need to recompile or reinstall it.

poisonous reverse


Poisonous reverse is the policy of invalidating route information in responses sent to a network if the route was learned from a message received on that network. For example, if a host receives information from node A, that host responds with a message stating that it has the information but that node A should not use it. See also, split horizon.



A rule for applying security processing to packets, for example, a rule that applies a specific type of encryption to packets of a specific traffic type that are destined for a specific port on a host at a specific address.

polled statistics gathering


A statistics gathering mode in which the network stack polls an END driver for supported statistics.



Polling is the method used to ask multiple devices, one at a time, if they have any data to transmit.



An XML formatted file that contains file system configuration information for the embedded HTTP server. Portfolios are a means of implementing run-time file system configuration updates.



The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), defined in RFC1661, it provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links.



See enumeration and probe routine.

probe routine


An entry point into drivers. After the system has tentatively identified a device as being associated with a driver, VxBus gives the driver a chance to verify that the driver is suitable to control the device. The driver registers the probe routine to perform this comparison. This routine is optional. If specified, it is normally safe and acceptable for the routine to simply indicate acceptance.

process ID


Each active process in the system is uniquely identified by a nonnegative integer called a process ID.



A silicon unit that contains one or more CPUs.

processor local bus (PLB)


The bus connected directly to a processor. This term is used in a processor-agnostic way in this documentation.



Text string that can be used in programming contexts when referencing the CLSID string is not appropriate. For example, the ProgID "WindRiver.Modbus" is more readable than the CLSID "E4CB0D90-09E3-11d0-BF6F-0A083C000000". Each ProgID is linked to a CLSID in the registry. ProgIDs are strings with no spaces or punctuation except for periods. They are limited to 39 characters and must not start with a digit.

program counter


The address of the current instruction when a process is suspended.



A collection of source code files, build settings, and binaries used to create a downloadable application or bootable system image, a kernel or RTP application, and so on.

Projects can be linked together in a hierarchical structure (displayed as a project/subproject tree in the Project Explorer) that reflects their inner dependencies, and therefore the order in which they should be compiled and linked.

project description files


Automatically-generated files that contain information about a project, such as project properties, build information, makefile fragments, and other metadata.



Each project must be given a name. When the project is created, several files are created based on the name given to the newly created project. These files are referred to as projName .



A proposal is a set of one or more transforms. All transforms in a proposal must be of the same type: AH or ESP.

protection suite


A list of the security services that must be applied by a security protocol. All the services in the list must be applied. For example, the protection suite for the ESP protocol may consist of 3DES encryption, and the protection suite for the AH protocol may consist of keyed MD5 (HMAC).



protocol is a set of rules, procedures, or conventions relating to the format and timing of data transmission between two devices.

protocol field


The protocol field of a PPP packet contains the protocol identifier that indicates which protocol a given PPP packet is intended for. For instance, IP is indicated by a protocol identifier 0x0021. Under some circumstances the protocol field can be reduced to a single byte by enabling protocol field compression.

protocol identifier


The protocol identifier is a two-byte value that indicates which protocol a given PPP packet is intended for. For instance, IP is indicated by a protocol identifier 0x0021. This identifier is found in the protocol field, and under some circumstances can be reduced to a single byte, thereby enabling protocol field compression.

protocol layer


The transport and network layers in the OSI network stack model are referred to in combination as the protocol layer. For instance, TCP is a transport layer implementation and IP is a network layer implementation; TCP/IP is a protocol layer implementation.

proxy domain


proxy domain is a network where proxy mobile IP is being used.

proxy mobile IPv4 client


proxy mobile IPv4 client is an instantiation serving a non-mobile device entering the proxy domain. See also proxy domain.

proxy mobile IPv4 mobility manager


proxy mobile IPv4 mobility manager refers to the main module that contains any number of proxy mobile IPv4 clients. See also proxy mobile IPv4 client.



Public Switched Telephone Network




QueryInterface. This is a COM standard for getting an interface pointer from another interface pointer on the same object. For example, the OPCEventServer object has three interfaces, any of which can be queried to get one of the other interfaces.




Remote Authentication Dial In User Service



Router Advertisement Daemon

RAM (Random Access Memory)


Memory that can be written to and read from by a processor. The granularity of the RAM access depends on the chosen target. Common granularity levels are words (4 bytes), dwords(8 bytes) and single bytes.

RAM is usually volatile, i.e., the content is lost or corrupted in case of a hard reset or power down.



Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

raster mode


raster mode is the method used for a graphics context to determine how a new drawing operation impacts the existing image on the display.



Regional Care of Address

real-time process (RTP)


A VxWorks process that is specifically designed for real-time systems.



Random Early Detection

refresh rate


The refresh rate is the number of times the display is refreshed per second.



The registry associates a target server's name with the network address needed to connect to that target server, thereby allowing you to select a target server by a convenient name.



The release is the USB (release) number obtained from the device descriptor.

remote wakeup


remote wakeup is an event generated by a device to bring the host system out of a suspended state. See also resume.



See "bus reset".

reset vector


The address in memory from which the processor will read its very first instruction after power on or reset.



The resolution is the number of pixels horizontally and vertically for an image.



Information about some aspect of device hardware configuration. See also parameter.

resource identifier


resource identifier is a unique handle for a Media Library resource that is used to identify the resource.



resume is a signal sent by the host to make a device in a suspended state come out of that state and restart. See also remote wakeup.



Request for Comment



RFCs (Request for Comments) are publicly available documents that contain research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) adopts some of the applied information theory published in RFCs as official Internet standards. Not all RFCs represent IETF standards--some are just informational.



Red Green Blue



Routing Information Protocol



Remote Network Driver Interface Specification.



RObust Header Compression



Read-Only Memory

ROM (Read Only Memory)


Memory that normally can only be read from by a processor. The granularity of the ROM accesses depend on the type of ROM (i.e., NAND-Flash, NOR-Flash, or EEPROM).

Although ROM is normally read-only, there are times, such as during a firmware update, when it can be written to. ROM can be programmed, using special tools or software, to get it into a usable state (e.g., when it is initialized for the first time). ROM is usually non-volatile, i.e., the content is preserved even in case of hard reset or power down.

root hub


root hub is the USB hub directly attached to the host controller. This hub (tier 1) is attached to the host.

root node


The base of a particular command tree.

root port


The root port is the downstream port on a root hub.

route optimization


Route optimization is direct communication between the mobile node and the correspondent node and is described in RFC 3775, Mobility Support in IPv6. See also mobile node and RFCs.



router is a device that determines which paths to use through a network to transmit data. Routers operate at the network layer in the OSI model, providing intelligent connections between networks.



Remote Procedure Call



Request processing module.



Retransmission Time Out



Real-time Operating System




A security association is a contract between two network peers, negotiated by IKE or set manually, that governs how the peers protect data passing between them. An SA applies to packets of a specific traffic type passing between specific ports on hosts at specific addresses. It determines the security protocol (AH or ESP), protocol mode, and protocol options to be used by IPsec for those packets. It is uniquely identified by a 3-tuple consisting of a Security Parameter Index (SPI), the destination address, and the protocol. An AH SA specifies the authentication key and the hash algorithm to be used. An ESP SA specifies the encryption key and the encryption algorithm to be used.

SA bundle


A security association bundle is a sequence of SAs by which traffic must be processed to satisfy a security policy.



Selective Acknowledgement



Security Association Database



Socket Application Library



Stream Control Transmission Protocol



Software Development Kit



Sequential Color with Memory



A subset of an object file. One section may contain code, another section may contain initialized variables, another may contain strings, and so on. Default sections are target-dependent; additional sections may be defined by the user.

Commonly, the linker bundles together various input sections in object files into output sections in an executable. For example, it bundles input sections containing initialized data created from different source files into a single output section of initialized data (which it locates in physical memory) in the executable.

See also locationobject file.

self-hosted development environment


The opposite of cross-development. The debugger and the application are running on the same machine.



SEcure Neighbor Discovery

serial bitbang


Serial bitbang describes a scenario where software writes the individual bits of a word out on a serial line, often with a corresponding clock, rather than writing the entire value into a register and allowing the underlying hardware to take care of the delivery of the word.

service driver


A device driver that provides a service to the operating system or to middleware, instead of a service for another device driver. Examples of service drivers include drivers for serial and network devices.



The setup is the first transaction sent by the host to a device during a control transfer.

setup packet


The setup packet contains a USB-defined structure that accommodates the minimum set of commands required to enable communication between the host and a device.



Secure Hashing Algorithm, version 1

shared library


Also known as a dynamic library. A package of precompiled routines that are loaded into an application at runtime. Because only the routines that are needed are linked in, the resulting executable is generally smaller than when static libraries are used. Also, many executables can make use of a set of shared libraries, and the libraries themselves may (often) be upgraded without the need to recompile executables. On the other hand, loading and exploiting dynamic libraries may be more complicated than using static libraries, and shared libraries must be distributed along with executables, unlike static libraries.

See also static library.

simple event


Simple event is a basic kind of event.

single precision


A term describing the storage format of a number. Double-precision storage is twice as large as single-precision; that is, double precision occupies two adjacent storage locations in memory. For example, under the IEEE 754 floating-point standard, single precision occupies 32 bits and double precision occupies 64.

singleton object


For a particular class, at any point of time, there is a maximum of one object (an instance of the class). That object is called a singleton object. The class for which this is an object is called a singleton class.



The secure key exchange mechanism defines a type of authenticated key exchange in which the parties use public key encryption to authenticate each other and share components of the exchange.

small-data area (SDA)


A special kind of data section that only contains variables whose size is below a given threshold (e.g., 8 bytes). The overall size of a small-data area A has a target-dependent upper limit (e.g., 64k), hence the size limitation for the variables in it; otherwise a single massive array could consume the whole area.

The advantage of an SDA is that, if you reserve one of the processor registers for it, the register can contain the fixed address of the middle of the area, so that the variables contained therein can be addressed with a single-address, register-relative, memory-access instruction (as opposed to multiple instructions).



Runs correctly on an SMP operating system, uses more than one CPU, and takes sufficient advantage of multitasking and concurrent execution to provide performance gains over a uniprocessor implementation.



Runs correctly on an SMP operating system, although it may not make use of more than one CPU (that is, does not take full advantage of concurrent execution for better performance).



Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNARF protocol


A SNARF protocol is a protocol that sees all packets first and that acts as a filter for other protocols, by determining whether or not a packet is passed on.


The Internet community has adopted SNMP as the standard for network management. The SNMP protocol is based on a client-server query-response model.
manager is the client or the entity generating the queries.
An agent is the server or the entity generating the responses.
SNMPv3 introduced another set of terms with more specific definitions. These terms allow SNMPv3 to use more specific compliance statements within specifications:
command generator creates queries and handles responses.
command responder services the queries from a command generator and returns responses or reports.
notification originator generates notifications (traps or informs) and sends them.
notification receiver receives notifications and, if necessary, returns responses or reports.
proxy forwarder receives SNMP messages and forwards them to another SNMP entity.
Most implementations include functions from more than one of the above terms. For example, a classic agent contains both a command responder and a notification originator. A classic manager contains a command generator and a notification receiver.



Socket Name Service



Simple Network Time Protocol



An internet socket is one end-point of a two-way communication link used by processes to communicate over a network. An internet socket is identified by a unique number defined by the TCP/IP protocol (for example, a combination of an IP address, a protocol, and a port number). Sockets provide information to the transport layer protocol. Each socket has queues for sending and receiving data Data written by a program to the socket at one end of the connection is transmitted to the socket on the other end of the connection, where it can be read by the program at that end.

source data item


A data item in a DA server that is used by a DX server to hook up to a target data item.

source lookup path


The source lookup path specifies the location that the Workbench debugger uses to identify and open each source file as it is being debugged. This is set in the Debug view in Workbench.

Source Server


Any DA server. Its data items are used as the source data items. OPC DX clients use OPC DX specific services to specify the Source Servers of a DX server.



Security Policy Database



A security parameter index is a 32-bit value included in ESP and AH headers, which is used to identify which SA should be applied to a packet.

split horizon


Split horizon is the policy of excluding route information in responses sent to a network if the route was learned from a message received on that network. Using split horizon, a host will not send information to node A if it received the information from node A in the first place. See also poisonous reverse.



The target application may stall a generic endpoint in response to certain error conditions, which indicates to the host that an error has occurred on the target.

standard build; standard managed build


Synonymous, deprecated project build types suitable for projects with build structures similar to the file system structure.

standard request


standard request is a certain USB request, such as GET_STATUS or SET_CONFIGURATION, which all USB devices support. Devices respond to this request even if it is not assigned an address or configured.



The start-of-frame (SOF) is the first transaction in each microframe. An SOF allows endpoints to identify the start of the microframe and synchronize internal endpoint clocks with the host.



state is the last known status or condition of a process, application, object, or device. The state of an endpoint indicates whether or not it is stalled.

static library


An archive of object files. The linker can use libraries, and the objects they contain, during linkage to resolve unresolved references. Static libraries are compiled and linked directly into an application.

Because they are linked in their entirety, static libraries provide all of their functionality to the application and, unlike shared libraries, do not need to be distributed separately from an executable. However, the entire executable must be replaced when a static library is upgraded; also, using static libraries may waste space if the executable is including unneeded routines or data.

See also shared library.



See "state".

stf interface


An stf interface is a 6to4 tunnel interface that can tunnel IPv6 traffic over IPv4, as specified in RFC3056. For ordinary nodes in 6to4 site, you do not need stf interface. The stf interface is necessary for site border router (called "6to4 router" in the specification). See also gif interface.



To subscribe to an event means to indicate that you want to be informed when an event is raised.



The mechanism to acquire source data item's data from a Source Server. This depends on the type of the Source Server COM or XML, and on the DA specification is supports. Subscribing to the data is supported by callbacks in COM DA, and by the Subscribe services in SML DA. Wind River OPC DX servers support subscribing to DA servers that implement the OPC Foundation's DA 2.04 and2.05a specifications.



An entity that requests access to the LAN.



To suspend a device is to put it into an inactive state to conserve power. For example, the host may suspend a device for a specific period when it observes that there is no traffic on the bus. While suspended, the USB device maintains its internal status, including its address and configuration.



Super Video Graphics Adapter

symbol, symbol reference


An identifier in an object file (often in a symbol table) that refers to a data structure in a source file, such as a function or a variable. Every access to a variable or function becomes a so-called symbol reference. If the symbol and the reference are defined in the same compilation unit (e.g., a C file), the reference is said to be resolved. If the symbol is defined in another compilation unit, the reference is unresolved (because the compiler always only sees a single unit at a time) and the linker will have to resolve it. See also object file.



When a process sends a message and then waits for a reply before continuing, or calls a function and waits for the function to complete its processing and return before continuing, these are said to besynchronous messages or synchronous function calls.

system mode


When in system mode, the debugger is focused on kernel processes and threads. When a process is suspended, all processes stop. Compare with user mode.




The architecture or system(-on-a-chip) the compiler will produce code for, e.g., PowerPC 860.

target agent


The target agent runs on the target, and is the interface between VxWorks or Wind River Linux and all other Wind River Workbench tools running on the host or target.

target application


target application responds to USB requests from the host that the TCD routes to the target application through the target layer.

target channel


See "handle".

target controller


target controller (TC) is the hardware part of the peripheral that connects to the USB.

target controller driver


The target controller driver (TCD) is the driver that sits just above the target controller and carries out all of the hardware-specific implementation of the target controller commands.

target data item


A data item in a DX server that gets its data from a data item from another DA server.

target layer


The target layer is a consistent, abstract mediator between a variety of target applications and the HAL.

target request block


The target request block (TRB) is a request block created by the HAL. It consists of the handle of the TCD, a function code, the length of the TRB, and the parameter associated with the function code. Every function code has an associated TRB. The HAL passes this request block to the TCD through the single entry point.

target server


The target server runs on the host, and connects Wind River Workbench tools to the target agent. There is one server for each target; all host tools access the target through this server.

target stack


The target stack is the software on the USB peripheral that interprets and responds to the commands sent by the USB host.



Transmission Control Protocol



TCP/IP is a suite of communication protocols that includes TCP and IP. It is used to connect hosts on the Internet and is built into the UNIX operating system. See also protocol.

test case


The individual tests that make up a given test module.

test harness


The BSP VTS test infrastructure. This includes the BSP VTS test scripts and the test harness driver.

test harness driver


A task that runs on the target board and invokes all of the test cases in a test suite. It is essentially the "conductor" of the test run on the target side.

test mode


test mode is a state used for debugging purposes. To facilitate compliance testing, host controllers, hubs, and high-speed capable functions must support various test modes as defined in the USB 2.0 specification.

test module


A collection of test cases that collectively exercise a certain piece of BSP code or functionality. A collection of test modules is referred to as a test suite.

test suite


A collection of test modules (see test module) that are configured and run for a given BSP VTS test run.

text section


A section that usually contains only executable code. See section.



Traffic Flow Confidentiality. A security mechanism for protecting identifying information in IPsec packets.



Trivial File Transfer Protocol



Tunnel Inner Address



timer is set to invoke a callback routine when it expires after a certain amount of time. See also timestamp.



timestamp is a passive timer that does nothing when it expires, but can be queried for its expiration status. See also timer.



Transparent inter-process communication protocol typically used by nodes within a cluster. Wind River provides a proxy and usermode agent program that allow Workbench to access targets within the TIPC cluster.

title bar


A view's title bar contains the view name, its icon, and the view toolbar. A highlighted title bar denotes the active view.

token packet


token packet is a type of packet that identifies what transaction is to be performed on the bus.



A view's toolbar contains actions that apply only to that view (for example, Step Over in the Debug view). The toolbar also contains a context menu that contains other actions for that view.

The main Workbench toolbar contains actions such as Search that apply to Workbench as a whole or that reflect the components that are installed.



The toolchain is the name of the compiler used to build the source files. The toolchain is specified in the make command with the argument TOOL.



Type of Service

tracking event


Tracking event is a simple event with an actor/acknowledgement ID. An actor ID is the identifier of the OPC client, which initiated the action resulting in the tracking-related event. For example, if the tracking-related event is a change in a value, the actor ID might be a reference to the client application that initiated the change or might be the user ID of the operator who specified the change. This value is server-specific, and its definition is outside the scope of this specification.



The transaction is the delivery of service to an endpoint. It consists of a token packet, an optional data packet, and an optional handshake packet. Specific packets are allowed or required based on the transaction type.

transfer type


The transfer type determines the characteristics of the data flow between a software client and its function. Four standard transfer types are defined: control transferinterrupt transferbulk transfer, andisochronous transfer.

translation unit


translation unit is a thin layer of the software that provides backward compatibility between the USB 2.0 host stack and the USB 1.1 class drivers. For details, refer to 3.2 Architecture Overview.



In the OSI network stack model, the transport layer sits above the network layer; TCP is an example of a protocol that implements the transport layer.

transport layer


The transport layer is the functionality in the OSI network model that provides transparent, reliable, and cost-effective transfer of data between end users. The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link, keeping track of the packets and retransmitting those that fail. TCP, UDP, RTP, and SCTP are examples of transport layer protocols. See also OSI network model.

transport mode


An end-to-end IPsec mode that protects upper-layer protocols. The end-point computers do the security processing.



Time to Live

tunnel mode


A portal-to-portal IPsec mode that protects entire IP packets. A single node provides security to several computers. Tunnel mode employs the technique of encapsulation, which enables a packet from one network to be transported by another network, by adding an outer IP header that is accepted by the second network.



Tunneling is a network protocol that encapsulates one protocol or session inside another. Tunneling can be used to transport a network protocol through a network that would not otherwise support it. Corporations make use of tunneling to extend the corporate network through private "tunnels" over the public Internet. This kind of interconnection is known as a virtual private network (VPN) and can provide functionality such as private addressing.




UDP, which stands for User Datagram Protocol, is a relatively fast and connectionless protocol that runs at the transport layer on top of IP networks. Because it has very few error recovery services (unlike TCP), it is used primarily for broadcasting messages and for other applications that do not require a connection. See also datagramprotocol, and transport layer.



A silicon unit that contains a single CPU.

Universal Host Controller Interface


The Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI) is the host controller compliant with the USB 1.1 specification.

Universal Serial Bus Driver


The Universal Serial Bus Driver (USBD) is the host resident software entity responsible for providing common services to clients that are manipulating one or more functions on one or more host controllers. It is a hardware-independent software layer that implements USB Protocol 2.0. It acts as a channel between the class drivers and host controller driver. For details, refer to 3.2 Architecture Overview.



From the perspective of a device, upstream refers to a point closer to the CPU on the bus hierarchy. See also parent.

USB Device


USB device is a hardware device that performs a useful end-user function. Interactions with USB devices flow from the applications through the software and hardware layers to the USB devices.

USB Request Block


The USB Request Block (URB) is used to send or receive data to or from a specific USB endpoint on a specific USB device in an asynchronous manner.

user mode


When in user mode, the debugger is focused on user applications and processes. When a process is suspended, other processes continue to run. Compare with system mode. For Linux 2.6 and higher kernels, user mode is a separate connection type. Compare to kernel mode.

user-defined build


Project builds for which you set up and maintain your own build system and Makefiles, and for which Workbench provides minimal support beyond a GUI launch, make rules expressed in the Project Explorer, and build output to the Build Console.




Video Graphics Array



A view is a visual component within Workbench, typically used to navigate a hierarchy of information (such as the resources in your workspace). Only one view has focus (is active) at a time.

view port


The view port is the rectangular area, similar to the clip rectangle, in the default bitmap to which drawing operations are restricted. All drawing is performed relative to the view port.



VxWorks Image Project. A VIP provides build support, source code analysis, and other capabilities that simplify the creation, configuration, and building of a kernel image. A VIP is one of the primary means for configuring VxWorks (the other is the VSB project). To work with (configure and build) a VIP, you can use the Workbench development suite (IDE) or the vxprj command line development tool.

virtual board (VB)


A virtual target hardware configuration presented to a guest OS or virtual board application (VBA) by the hypervisor. The virtual board is the mechanism used by the hypervisor to partition the physical hardware. In a hypervisor system, the guest OS treats the virtual board as a physical target and has no awareness of the physical hardware or other partitions in the system.

virtual board application (VBA)


An application that runs natively (directly) on a virtual board without operating system support. This is sometimes referred to as a bare metal application.

One possible Wind River Hypervisor configuration includes the VxWorks guest OS running in a system that includes one or more virtual board applications (each running in its own virtual board context).

virtual board physical address


Virtual boards run on physical hardware and the physical hardware has devices at certain physical addresses. When a virtual board's context is created, these physical addresses are translated to a different address as presented to the virtual board. These are virtual addresses to the hypervisor, but they are physical addresses in the virtual board context. These translated addresses are virtual board physical addresses.



Virtual Local Area Network



Virtual Private Network




wakeup is an event causing the device to come out of a suspended state.



Windows Wave (audio format/file extension)

WDB target agent


The WDB target agent runs on the target, and is the interface between VxWorks and all other Wind River Workbench tools running on the host or target.

Caution: When VxWorks is configured with the WDB target agent, it is enabled on UDP port 17185. This service provides full access to VxWorks memory, and allows for writing to memory as well as for calling routines. Wind River recommends removing WDB from VxWorks for production systems



widget is a term used loosely to describe a window having pre-defined characteristics, such as buttons, menus, and entry fields are widgets. A window class defines the characteristics of a widget.

Wind River Management Integration Tool


A GUI application that is used to develop resources and generate target code for configuring and building embedded management applications. Also referred to as the WMIT.



A type of resource that manages data objects. It differs from MIB resource objects in that it is not tied to an OID and can receive a string argument as opposed to a OID instance. WindMarks can represent MIB objects.



The desktop development environment as a whole--the space Workbench takes up on your screen. A Workbench window can contain more than one perspective, but only one is displayed at a time.

window attribute


window attribute is one in a set of flags affecting the behavior of a window.



Windowing is a powerful object-oriented approach for creating GUIs and for allowing multiple applications to share a single display.



WinPoET is a PPPoE client for Windows.

working set


Resources you select to view or operate on as a group. For example, you can create a working set to speed up a search by restricting its scope. A working set can also help you focus by reducing the number of projects visible in the Project Explorer, the number of symbols displayed in the Outline view, and so on.



The central location for all the resources you see in Workbench: your projects, folders, and files. Workbench uses the workspace to store settings that describe your working environment: which projects and views are currently open, how you have your views arranged within the perspective, whether you have breakpoints set, and so on.

The default location of the workspace is installDir /workspace. To keep your projects completely isolated from each other, you can create more than one workspace.

To share the build objects of your projects with a target, the workspace (directory) may be in a file system that is exported to the target, or you may redirect build objects from your workspace to a location exported to the target.

NOTE: This use of the term workspace is entirely different from the flash workspace, which is a small area of RAM needed to run the flash algorithm; that sense of the term is restricted to flash programming.



Wind River Media Library Window Manager




External Data Representation








The z-order is the placement of windows along an imaginary z-axis that extends out from the display, perpendicular to the display itself. This stacking order determines visible and or obscured windows when other windows overlap or occupy the same area on the display.

Zero-copy sockets


Zero-copy sockets are an alternative set of socket calls based on a data abstraction called a zbuf, or zero-copy buffer. Zero-copy buffers are a data abstraction designed to allow software modules to share buffers without unnecessarily copying data. Alternate terms include zero-copy bufferzero-copy socket, and zbuf.

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